Studies on excitation and inhibition in the retina a collection of papers from the laboratories of H. Keffer Hartline by F. Ratliff

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Studies on excitation and inhibition in the retina: A collection of papers from the laboratories of H. Keffer Hartline [Floyd Ratliff] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying by: H. Keffer Hartline has conducted research on vision and the retina.

His researches have extended into many and diverse branches of the field, and he has studied the retinas of various representatives of each of the three major phyla having well-developed eyes--the arthropods, the vertebrates, and the mollusks.

Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below to browse page by : J. Kelsey. This is a PDF-only article.

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Kelsey. Summary of data on inhibition during off activity expressed as per cent maximum inhibition taken from ten retinal populations in seven rabbits. The values of excitation given beneath the abscissa are taken from the same populations and represent the time of earliest firing in response to by: 5.

Abstract In this chapter, we review a series of computational modeling studies using biophysically based neural circuit models to study how disruptions of cortical excitation–inhibition (E/I) balance can induce cognitive deficits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

Purchase Excitation and Inhibition - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBNBook Edition: 1. Abstract. The interplay of excitation and inhibition lies at the foundation of nervous integrative function.

Modern neurophysiology builds on Sherrington’s analysis of motor function, extending his concepts to all the sensory systems and to the infinite complexity of the higher nervous centers (cf.

Granit, ).Antagonistic processes in vision recall Hering; the role of inhibition in vision Cited by: Direction Selectivity in the Retina spond to rotation about the best response axes of the three semicircular canals in the inner ear. The On DS cells, which project to the accessory optic system, appear to respond to global slippage of the retinal image, thus providing a signal that drives the optokinetic reflex.

Linearization utilizes a circuitry whereby nonlinear ON inhibition adds with nonlinear OFF excitation or ON excitation adds with OFF inhibition to generate a more linear postsynaptic voltage response. Crossover inhibition has now been measured in most bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion by: an der Heiden U.

() Structures of Excitation and Inhibition. In: Heim R., Palm G. (eds) Theoretical Approaches to Complex Systems. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol Cited by: 2. Different amounts of excitation received by different pyramidal cells of primary visual cortex are matched by proportional amounts of inhibition.

The balance between synaptic excitation and Cited by: 23 Retinal processing and output Center-surround organisation of receptive fields – Basically codes for CONTRAST – compares illumination of center with surround Two different pathways for responding to light increases and light decreases – ON-center and OFF-center RGCs M and P cell pathways Lateral inhibition, convergence, etc.

Direct pathway – photoreceptor --> Bipolar cell --> RGC. Studies on Excitation and Inhibition in the Retina A collection of papers from the laboratories of H.

Keefer Hartline Author: Floyd Ratliff: Book. Book Type. PDF eBook, $ ePub eBook, $ Kindle (Mobi), $ Second Study Program Author: Francis O. Schmitt: Book. Book Type. In neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors.

Lateral inhibition disables the spreading of action potentials from excited neurons to neighboring neurons in the lateral direction. This creates a contrast in stimulation that allows increased sensory perception. Ganglion cells are also the most complex information processing systems in the vertebrate retina.

It is a general experimental truth that an organism as a whole cannot behaviorally respond to visual stimuli that are not also detectable by individual ganglion cells. Cohen, Ethan D. Interactions of inhibition and excitation in the light-evoked currents of X type retinal ganglion cells.J.

Neurophysiol. –, The excitatory and inhibitory conductances driving the light-evoked currents (LECs) of cat and ferret on - and off-center X ganglion cells were examined in sliced and isolated retina preparations using center spot stimulation in Cited by: behavior of the outer retina.

The inner retina is more complex. The retina has several types of ganglion cells. The two qualitatively different inputs of a ganglion cell are the excitation and the inhibition. The excitation comes from a bipolar cell; the inhibition derives through an amacrine cell.

Each amacrine cell has connection atCited by: receive neural input from 2 sources: red receptors & green receptors.

*input from red receptors is excitatory. *input from green receptors is inhibitory. -if excitation outweighs inhibition --> firing in the opponent cell increases above the spontaneous level & the red portion of the spectrum is signaled. The retina forms the inside lining of the back of the eye and is composed of light-sensitive neurons.

The retina processes the light emitted from visual images via transduction (the conversion of energy from one form to another), and transmits this information to the brain for perceptual awareness of the images.

Because complex patterns of brain activity are thought to underlie flexible behavior and cognition, the ratio between excitation and inhibition — referred to as E/I balance — is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial measure for assessing the fitness of any phrenia, for example, has been associated with a low E/I ratio caused by weakly active glutamate receptors.

Development of light response and GABAergic excitation-to-inhibition switch in zebrafish retinal ganglion cells Article in The Journal of Physiology (Pt 14) May with 43 Reads.

This pattern of connectivity is one example of lateral inhibition — each cell is inhibited laterally. Somatosensory Lateral Inhibition. The study of lateral inhibition has not been limited to vision. von Békésy studied similar processes in the sense of touch, as summarized.

In the retina, highly selective wiring from inhibitory cells contributes to determine the direction-selection characteristics of an individual ganglion cell, yet how the asymmetric wiring inherent Cited by:   Continuing Hartline's study of the frog retina, H.

Barlow detected an inhibitory influence surrounding the excitatory region of the receptive field [2]. In the lateral eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, the receptive fields of single ommatidia have both excitatory centers and inhibitory surrounds.

Converging circuits with excitation and inhibition are associated most closely with which step of the perceptual process. Increases In a neural circuit with convergence that only involves excitatory synapses, the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron __________ as the number of.

CNNT vs Acute Neural Injury and Epilepsy (ANIE) have shared interests in epilepsy, SCI - ANIE is the main study section to review clinical and human-subject based studies clinical and human-subject based vs CNNT reviews those applications focused on the use of experimental and animal models.

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Mechanism underlying rebound excitation in retinal ganglion cells. The first axons of RGCs leave the retina at about 32 hpf and reach the optic tectum at 45–48 hpf (Stuermer, ; Burrill & Easter, ). These studies indicate that the zebrafish retina develops rapidly and has advantages for studying the morphological maturation of retinal circuits.

However, little is known about its functional by: Executive summary: Physiology of the retina American physiologist Haldan K. Hartline spent decades studying the optic nerves of frogs and horseshoe crabs.

Working with Columbia University physiologist Clarence H. Graham, he was the first scientist to isolate and record of the activity of a Born: This study investigated the effects of cellular geometry, electrode to neuron distance, stimulus duration, and stimulus polarity on excitation of a retinal ganglion cell with an epiretinal electrode.

However, studies of infrared light for excitatory cell inhibition have been constrained by the use of invasive and cumbersome electrodes for cell excitation and action potential recording. Here, we present an all optical experimental design for neuronal excitation, inhibition, and action potential : Alex J.

Walsh, Gleb Tolstykh, Stacey Martens, Anna Sedelnikova, Bennett L. Ibey, Hope T. Beier. Study 40 Chapter 2 flashcards from Darlena P. on StudyBlue. if your work history is not directly related to the position you are pursuing, it is not acceptable to list the place of employment, job title, employment dates, and the skills you acquired at this job.

Thus there is a ‘switch’ from excitation to inhibition as the reversal potential for chloride drops below the threshold for firing action potentials (Fig.

3 A, B right). In turtle retina, the timing of the GABA switch correlates with a decrease in propagating spontaneous activity (Sernagor et al., ), suggesting that GABA depolarization. FIG. interactions between excitation and inhibition, as revealed by ±% contrast flashes.

A: example excitatory trace for an off cell, transitions used to characterize response polarity are labeled a–d. B–D: histograms of polarity metric, X, for inhibition (see methods) in off cone bipolar (CB; B) cells, rod bipolar (RB, C) cells, and on cone bipolar cells (D).Cited by: Study 78 first 2 midterms flashcards from marleen v.

on StudyBlue. Chad is reading when he sees an insect land on the corner of his book. He then makes an eye movement to look at the insect. The rate of firing of the postsynaptic neuron depends in the amount of both excitation and inhibition input it receives from the presynaptic neuron.

Hartline HK. The effects of spatial summation in the retina on the excitation of the fibers of the optic nerve.

Am J Physiol,Hartline HK. Inhibition of activity of visual receptors by illuminating nearby retinal areas in the Limulus eye. Fed Proc,8: Hartline HK, Wagner HG, and Ratcliff F. Inhibition in the eye of. Photoreceptors, Receptive Fields, and Lateral Inhibition In this video I go into more detail on the retina, describing the two main types of photoreceptors (rods and .Excitation and inhibition in single nerve cells.

The Harvey Lectures,pp. New York: Academic Press. With J. Dudel. Presynaptic inhibition at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. With E. A. Kravitz and D. D. Potter. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and other blocking compounds in Crustacea. III.With a large decrease in inhibition and no change in excitation, the balance of excitatory and inhibitory input to OFF bipolar cells shifted toward excitation (P = ; Fig.

8E). Additionally, we measured the spatial extent of excitatory input to OFF bipolar cells under dim .

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